Container Freight Common Sense
Containers are widely used in the transportation of import and export goods. Here are some common knowledge about container cargo:
The so-called container refers to a large container with certain strength, stiffness and specifications for turnover use. Container transshipment of goods can be directly loaded in the shipper's warehouse and unloaded in the consignee's warehouse. It is not necessary to take the goods out of the box and replace them when changing vehicles and ships. According to the types of goods, there are grocery containers, bulk containers, liquid containers, refrigerated containers, etc. According to the manufacturing materials, there are wooden containers, steel containers, aluminum alloy containers, FRP containers, stainless steel containers, etc. According to the structure, there are folding containers, fixed containers, etc. Fixed containers can also be divided into closed containers, open-top containers, shelf containers, etc. According to the total weight, there are 30 tons of containers, 20 tons of containers, 10 tons of containers, 5 tons of containers, 2.5 tons of containers, etc.
2. Container's overall external dimensions
The largest external length, width and height of containers, including permanent accessories of containers. It is the main parameter to determine whether container can be replaced between ship, chassis car, freight car and railway vehicle. It is an important technical data that transportation departments must master.
3. Container's internal dimensions
Maximum length, width and height of container interior. The height is the distance between the bottom plate of the box and the bottom of the top plate of the box, the width is the distance between the two inner lining plates, and the length is the distance between the inner plate of the door and the inner lining plate of the end wall. It determines the volume of the container and the maximum size of the cargo in the container.
IV. Container's unobstructed capacity
The loading volume is calculated according to the size of the container. Containers of the same specification have slightly different contents due to different structures and manufacturing materials. Container content volume is an important technical data that must be mastered by material department or other packers.
V. Twenty-feet equivalent units (TEU)
Also known as the 20-foot conversion unit, it is the conversion unit for calculating the number of containers. At present, most containers in various countries use 20-foot and 40-foot containers. In order to unify the calculation of container number, the 20-foot container is regarded as a unit of calculation and the 40-foot container as two units of calculation, so as to facilitate the unified calculation of container operation.
VI. Container leasing
That is, a business in which the owner leases empty boxes to the user. The owner of the container is the leasing Party of the container, and the user, generally the shipping company or the cargo owner, is the leasing party. Both parties sign the lease contract. Qualified containers provided by the lessor shall be used by the lessee within the agreed scope. There are many different ways to lease containers in the world, which can be summarized as follows: Check lease, term lease, current lease and blocking lease in the shipping area.
It is the specific handling department of container or cargo handling exchange and custody in container transportation. It is entrusted by the carrier or its agent to carry out the following business:
Exchange and custody of the whole container freight;
If there is a container terminal, the delivery of the combined container cargo shall be handled.
Arrange the berthing of container ships, load and unload containers, and draw up stowage charts for each voyage.
Handle the drafting and signing of relevant freight documents;
Prepare and verify relevant documents for the entry, exit and circulation of containers using means of transport;
Conduct inspection and maintenance of containers and conveyances, loading and unloading tools, as well as cleaning and fumigation of empty containers.
Receiving, storing and keeping empty containers;
Arrange the stacking of empty and heavy containers in the yard, and prepare the site allocation plan.
Other related business work.
Container loading and unloading area is generally composed of special wharf, frontier, yard, freight station, command tower, repair department, gate and office. Sometimes the yard or freight station can extend to a 5-15 kilometre transit station within the city.
8. Marshalling yard
It refers to the temporary storage of containers in front of container terminals in order to speed up ship handling operations. Its function is: before the container ship arrives at the port, the export containers are orderly and orderly stacked in accordance with the stowage requirements, and the imported containers are temporarily stacked in front of the wharf when the ship is unloaded in order to speed up the ship's loading and unloading operations.
9. Container yard
The place where heavy or empty containers are handed over, kept and stored. In some countries, container yards are not divided into front yards or rear yards, which are collectively referred to as yards. Container rear yard is an integral part of container handling area. It is the place where the whole container cargo is handed over by the "on-site" handover mode of container transportation (in fact, it is handed over at the "gate" of the container unloading area).
10. Van pool
Specialized in empty box collection, storage, storage or handover sites. It is set up only when the container loading and unloading area or the Transshipment Station Yard is insufficient. This kind of yard does not handle the handover of heavy containers or goods. It can be operated independently, or it can be set up outside the container handling area. In some countries, the operation of such empty container yards must be declared to the shipping association.
11. Container depot or inland Depot
A transit station or distribution center for container transportation outside a seaport. Its function is the same as that of container loading and unloading area except that there is no special container ship. The measurement of transit station or inland station includes urban transit station of container loading and unloading port, inland city and inland station of inland river port.
12. Container Freight Station (CFS)
The place where the ship and the cargo parties handle the handover of the combined cargo and the dismantling of the cargo. The carrier can only entrust the operator of a container terminal in a port or inland city. It carries out the following main business on behalf of the carrier:
Tallying and delivery of LCL cargo;
If there is any abnormality in the inspection of the appearance of the goods, the annotations shall be made.
Container stowage and packing of LCL cargo;
Removal and storage of imported unloaded cargo;
To seal and issue station receipts on behalf of the carrier;
Handle all documents and compilation, etc.
Shipper's responsibility in container transportation is not entirely different from that in traditional maritime transportation. The responsibility of the shipper of LCL is the same as that of the traditional shipping. The responsibility of the whole container shipper is different from that of the traditional transportation.
The correctness and completeness of the reported cargo information shall be guaranteed.
The carrier has the right to check the goods in the box, and the cost incurred by the check shall be borne by the shipper.
The shipper shall bear the expenses incurred by the Customs or other power organs for open-box inspection and the resulting loss and difference of goods.
If the container cargo is unsatisfactory, or the padding is bad, the stowage is inappropriate, or the cargo is not suitable for container transportation, thus causing damage to the cargo and poor cargo, the shipper shall be responsible for it.
If the shipper's own unseaworthiness container is used, the shipper shall be responsible for the cargo damage accident.
The shipper shall be responsible for the damage to the property or life of a third party caused by the use of the carrier's containers and equipment.
14. Limitation of liability
The carrier shall bear the maximum amount of compensation for the loss and difference of goods in container transportation. The limitation of liability of LCL is the same as that of traditional transportation. The compensation for the whole container is based on some international precedents at present: if the bill of lading does not specify the number of cargo packed in the box, each case shall be regarded as a unit of claim calculation; if the bill of lading specifies the number of cargo packed in the box, it shall still be calculated by the number of cargo packed in the box; if the damage or loss of the cargo occurs not by sea, but in inland transportation. If the container is owned or provided by the shipper, the carrier should be responsible for the loss or damage, and it should also be regarded as a unit of claim calculation.
15. Uniform liability system
A system of liability for damage to goods by intermodal operators. In accordance with this system, the carrier issuing the intermodal bill of lading is universally liable for the entire carriage of goods to the cargo owner, that is to say, the difference between damaged and damaged goods, regardless of which stage of carriage occurs, is responsible for the same content of responsibility. If the stage of transport in which the damage occurred can be ascertained, the intermodal carrier may recover from the actual carrier of the carriage after compensation has been made.
Network liability system
A system of liability for damage to goods by intermodal operators. According to this system, although the carrier issuing the intermodal bill of lading still bears the responsibility for the entire transport of the cargo, the compensation for damage is not the same as that under the same liability system, but is responsible for the content of the liability at the stage of transport in which the damage occurs. For example, damage occurs at the stage of maritime transport and is dealt with in accordance with international transport rules; if it occurs at the stage of railway or road transport, it is dealt with in accordance with relevant international or domestic law.